The Rams made it to Wembley via a 4-3 aggregate victory over Leeds in the semi-finals, setting up a clash with Villa following their penalty triumph over West Brom.
And Wilson was tasked with his biggest test as a senior professional as he made his 49th appearance in an impressive loan spell under Frank Lampard.
But despite playing the entirety of the final, Wilson was left disappointed along with his team-mates as goals from Anwar El Ghazi and John McGinn secured Villa’s promotion.
Martyn Waghorn did reduce the deficit on 81 minutes and Derby pushed for an equaliser with a late surge as injury time extended to seven minutes, but it wasn’t to be.
A permanent move to Pride Park could have been likely for Wilson had a Premier League place been confirmed, with the 22-year-old valued at £25 million, but now there is further uncertainty over his future.
He will now fly out to Madrid for the Champions League final, where he will be among those watching on at the Wanda Metropolitano, before a well-earned summer break.
After that, Wilson is set to return to Melwood for pre-season, and discussions which could determine the trajectory of his career.
“I wanted to come to a good football team so I could showcase what I could do. Hopefully the manager has seen the games on TV and I’ve made a good impression.
“I’ll go back there pre-season; what happens from there I don’t know.”
There is a sense that Wilson remains intent on proving himself at Liverpool, though the lack of clarity would suggest he has been afforded no guarantees over his future role.
That is unlike Rhian Brewster who, although in different circumstances after a long-term injury, has been assured that he is part of Klopp’s long-term plans despite the length of time he was unable to feature.
But many still hope he can carve out a place in Klopp’s squad, and much could depend on his ability to impress the manager this summer.